Islamic architecture elements and buildings
Islamic architecture, which has a rich and valuable heritage rooted to the day marked by creative geometric elements and decorative patterns over the years, deserves the attention of architects from all over the world.
Creativity in exterior design and interior decoration remains one of the most important characteristics of Islamic art, which has always been characterized by unity, diversity and sophistication.
Islamic architecture retained the general structure of the Islamic style and was associated with the fixed and variable idea of the decorative architectural style, making it a dynamic dynamic architecture in progress, creativity, modernization and keeping up
All of these characteristics gave Islamic architecture aesthetic dimensions with a symbolic function, intellectual dimensions with a cognitive function, and historical dimensions with a documentary and documentary function.
From this standpoint, we can conclude that Islamic architecture, with its various orientations and schools, serves as a link between the past and the present of Islamic culture.
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The multiplicity of the Islamic architectural style throughout the ages since he was a simple Arab and then moved to the Umayyad era, where the early Umayyads were influenced by the style of Christian architecture. New. Domes, lighthouses, and the Arabic décor style were added to the Christian architecture style to be the Umayyad style of architecture.
This came after the Abbasid style, which was clearly influenced by the prosperity experienced by the Abbasid state. They formed their unique style of domes and developed Islamic and Umayyad minarets. They have their clear mark in the pillars, pillars, and decorations between the pillars in the form of domes in large mosques, such as the Jami Mosque in Samarra, the Al-Raiqa Mosque in Iraq and the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo.
He moved to Andalusia and Morocco, and he had a distinctive name at it. One of the unique examples of architecture in Morocco is the Hambra palace and schools in Morocco (especially in the city of Fez). The Fatimids in Egypt had another imprint that was different from its predecessors and was characterized by simplicity. The Fatimids built the Al-Azhar Mosque, the Al-Hakim Mosque by the command of God and the Al-Saleh Mosque Talaea, and after the fall of the Fatimid state after two and a half centuries and the emergence of the Ayyubid state that expanded to cover all parts of Egypt, the Levant and the Hijaz. Salah al-Din’s first goal was to fight the Crusaders in the heart of the Islamic world, Palestine, which was a Fatimid and then Ayyubid province, and for this purpose the Ayyubid architectural style was affected by the war and its preparations.
Examples of architectural masterpieces of the Ayyubid era include the Salah al-Din Citadel in Cairo, the Citadel of Aleppo, the Citadel of the Mountain in Cairo, and the schools spread in Egypt that were built to spread the Sunni doctrine in Islam.
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Features of Islamic architecture:
Islamic architectural art was characterized by simulation. Muslim architectural thought was associated with the prohibition of stereotaxic art, so it was directed towards an abstract approach through decorations to achieve smooth flow of lines, geometric balance and color compatibility to create an authentic abstract art that expresses originality. To the level of intellectual simulation that depended on the method of abstraction in expression.
Islamic architecture derives its lines, composition, texture, and repetition of a harmonious rhythm through the direction towards abstract engineering and agricultural formations from the surrounding environment in addition to borrowing the shape and composition of some elements from previous architectural styles
Plastic values for Islamic architecture:
The plastic standard is the method that enables the architect to know the aspects of beauty, which is characterized by any of the arts without paying attention to the content, and no plastic art work is free of some plastic art elements, namely: font – area – color – shade – light – surface contact – space .
What gives the work the characteristic of beauty is the relationship of these elements with each other and their harmony, since nature itself is not without these elements.
What distinguishes Islamic architecture is that it has absolute forms according to Plato’s theory, which distinguished between the relative and absolute shape, as the first is everything its beauty exists in the nature of things and is a tradition of those living things around, and the absolute is the structure that contains lines, curves, surfaces and volumes extracted from these Live things by rulers, squares, and spaces.
Calligraphy in Islamic architecture:
One of the most important plastic elements, which plays a fundamental role in Islamic architecture, especially in decorative elements, and among its patterns in Islamic art is the curved line that revolves here and there within the limits of the area designated for decoration.
And the engineering line whose function is to define the areas from which the fillings are made and move towards precision and smallness and it gives a sense of stability and stability.
Color is used in Islamic architecture to perform aesthetic function and is often dominated by blue and green gilded along with specific areas of red, brown and yellow. Not only was the Muslim architect used to color but also used the material so he combined it with the colors and highlighted a dazzling beauty.
Shadow and light:
The shadows help to embody and its plastic aesthetic function, which gives tone and aesthetic diversity, as is evident in the facades of mosques.
Contact with surfaces in Islamic architecture:
Islamic architecture is very rich in diversity in surfaces, and the Muslim architect exploits the touch values of the surfaces of natural materials, varying in the breadth and accuracy of the decorative element.
The buildings in which Islamic architecture is famous:
Mosques – shrines – laces (military barracks) – gorges and hospices, which Sufi mystics worship and asceticism – venues (places for drinking by passers-by) – khans which are designated for the residence of travelers and merchants – markets – bathrooms – private residences.