The mountainous nature of Makkah:
The mountainous nature of Makkah is one of the most important areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The height of the price of land meters regardless of the mountainous and topographical nature of the site, Makkah is characterized by the existence of mountains and valleys, which form in the end different paths and reservoirs of rain, Makkah Mountains constitute 60% of the area and is one of the most rich areas of rock components such as granite and other, but unfortunately, due to lack of the side of studies and the dimension of sustainability shows some non-engineering solutions that cause the weakening of the green side of the city In this context, we decided to highlight three main points:
- The topography of Makkah.
- Design of buildings on the mountains.
- Sustainability in mountain buildings.
First: the topography of Makkah:
there is no doubt that the environment and nature constitute the growth of the city clearly, Mecca, which controls the urban fabric by two main determinants are the nucleus or the beginning of the axis of the composition of the radiological fabric, which starts from the Kaaba and the second determinant is mountain nature, The nature of architectural topography of the buildings and houses in Makkah, in addition to several social and cultural determinants, influenced but the discussion is prolonged. The focus on the radiological determiner, this specific, makes all buildings based on the view of the Kaaba and the Qibla. Which possesses landmarks The main cities that have major mosques will be the elimination of the entrances from the heart of the mosque. Similarly, the trends are different. The second is the mountain topography. , And it is the most important issue that was associated with the movement of the urban fabric of the mountainous nature of Makkah and thus formed the cancerous fabric random, this fabric that makes things unclear, does not want there is a plan that starts from the center and ripple according to the mountain nature. In the past few years, some have talked about the fact that the governments and the government of Saudi Arabia are carrying out the work of removing and describing random buildings. But unfortunately what they do not know is that this random environment is a dangerous, unhealthy and dangerous social fabric of society that needs to be removed and not treated. The right solution is what has already been done in order to remove and develop, In fact, most of the slums are The value of more than the real value of the meter but not exploited well, we can not blame the grandparents, everyone worked hard to what can currency and now it is the right planning role.
The second part is the design of mountain buildings:
Luckily, the Municipality of the Holy Capital provided special requirements for the mountain pieces and made the construction on the slopes of the mountains within the approved building requirements. It also contributed to the role of settlement and made the skyline of Mecca balanced. Determining the architectural design of the mountain buildings, they are very strange in terms of recoil, terrace, lathe, and lava, some buildings will be made to be very similar. We believe that giving greater freedom of design will create a distinctive aesthetic and architectural environment and an architect who has a high architectural spirit Will appear m The mountains are high as architectural antiques in high magnificence. On the mountainous commercial or hotel buildings near the central area, these buildings are usually carefully designed and must be designed by the architect to take into consideration the efficiency and functionality. The area is not identical and maybe The triangular or ribs of more than 8 ribs should be focused on several factors, including the number of rooms in the floor and thus the absorption of pilgrims, which will determine the value of the expected income of the hotel building, then the standard and many of the requirements that we always bear in mind when designing a building in Mecca This is important The requirements for safety and civil defense will also be presented. The requirements of the Committee of Pilgrims Accommodation and the requirements of tourism, as well as the requirements to be provided for the operation of the hotel.
The last aspect of sustainability in mountain buildings:
The techniques used in the rock works in Makkah are not environmentally friendly and harmful to the environment, and there is no use of the rocks removed from the sites correctly if we look at what is wrong? There are many mistakes, so why rocks are broken in the site in this way, the stomach that will cut the rock will result in the use of high carbon ratio Other equipment that transport the aggregates will increase the grains and will transfer the rubble from one place to another without treatment or solutions, What is the solution? From our point of view, there are many solutions whose cost is higher. But if we look at this cost, we will know that we are talking about treasures, as well as rocks, which can be used in many The other things are that It can have a sustainable economic return.