Car parks (design, dimensions and measurements)
When evaluating establishments, and what they contain of multiple facilities, this is in conjunction with development to provide convenience and multiple functions. Car parks are one of the most important facilities that need to be accompanying the building or facility, it is always expected from developers to provide access to the facility with sufficient space within its location for the car park .
Definition and types of parking lots
A car park is a space specifically designed for all road users the way they can park their cars safely. It is a place, area or parking area.
The main range of parking spaces is to protect public order and urban decor but also to avoid random parking lots that definitely lead to roadblocks and traffic congestion.
The basic design aspects can be understood by understanding the differences between the different types of parking lots, it can be a building for parking or horizontal parking on one level, or parking floors, the following is a bit of explanation about the different designs:
- One level parking: It is a garage that has only one floor.
- Multi-storey or multi-storey car park: It is a parking garage with several floors for parking. The design of the multi-level garage can be completely different. The most common design is a garage with stairs to move from one level to another. Less common are parking lots that use elevators to go from level to level. Then there are parking garages with robotic systems that move cars from one level to another. Garage floors can either rise or fall, or both
- Underground parking: It contains levels below the surface of the earth and there is no above ground. Underground parking garages are often found in city centers where there is not much space to build a parking facility
- Automated car park: You drive your car on a platform in the garage. After that, the automatic parking system will transfer your car to the available parking spot somewhere in the tower. Cars can be moved vertically and horizontally using hydraulic or mechanical lifts.
There are many benefits to a multi-level parking facility with an automated parking system. For example, you can stack more cars in a small space because cars are parked by robots. Also, parking spaces can be smaller since no one needs to enter or exit the vehicle and people do not park on it; the automated system does not need enough space to park the vehicle more than a person needs
Architectural classification of parking
Car parks are architecturally classified in:
Covered: It is located in closed areas or in the basement of a building hosting both cars and motorcycles
Outdoors: The outdoor car parks have one floor designed for car parks.
On the other hand, the construction of underground car parks, although justified by the exploitation of the surface area, the construction costs will be higher: not only for the necessary excavation work but also for waterproofing work that greatly increases construction costs.
Underground parking is necessary when needed to preserve the urban formation of the roof: it allows to improve the official residence of roads, squares and green areas.
Vertical development parking lots is the most rational solution among parking facilities because it works to improve the use of the area, and contains costs, but it needs appropriate design studies to suit the urban environment appropriately.
Car Park Infrastructure: Design Standards
The basic scaling of parking spaces must start from the average overall dimensions of the vehicle and the necessary operating areas.
The average European car is 4.50 meters wide and 1.80 meters wide. The EU reference size for a vehicle is assumed to be 5 meters in length and 2.50 wide. These same standards are also valid in Switzerland.
The UK is a bit smaller with at least 2,40 x 4,80 meters.
In Canada, we have a minimum car size of 2.60 x 5.20 meters.
The average vehicle parameter size in the U.S. is 18 feet x 96 inches (5.48 x 2.44 meters), even if there are differences in some states.
In Europe, Canada, and the United States, parking spaces or car parks, or the like, range from 4,580 to 5,00 meters in those sections in front of the box or perpendicular parking space on the line, these standards are good given the inclination and increase in vehicle dimensions These dimensions increase by 0,50-1,00 meters.
Looking at the tilt angles in the parking lots regarding access:
- 0 ° (parking in line, parallel to line orientation) – the configuration most used in urban environments.
- 90 ° (vertical or ‘comb’ pattern – perpendicular to access lanes) – most appropriate when there are two parking sides served by a central access lane.
In addition, the angular diagram or the “herring bone” diagram that ranges from 30 °, 45 °, or 60 ° oblique according to different angles in Relativity to the Access Line:
- 30 ° is often used when the access path is very narrow
- 45 degree is mainly used in mechanical workshops
- 60 degrees when there is only one line with a lane
These differences include the possibility to change the width of the car park plan in order to save space and improve vehicle management.
Improve parking space
Total parking size: The cheapest parking design is a vertical or comb design followed by on-line parking that can increase parking spaces by up to 25%. The parking angle charts have a percentage of approximately 10% between them and take up less space since the inclination angle increases compared to the access line.
But considering the ease of entry and exit from the car park. Numerous studies have confirmed that vertical layout is most problematic from the point of view of portability and therefore the most functional parking setting is the corner pillar or “herring bone” scheme. Additional side spaces are required to ensure the car doors can be opened comfortably by passengers on both sides.
Read also: Establishing seaports
Disabled car parks
Car parks should also provide easily accessible places for the disabled. For example, in the United States, one parking place must be guaranteed every 25 disabled parking spaces. In France, the ratio is set to one for every 50 parking spaces.