Earthquake resistant building technologies
It is extremely important that construction engineers and architects give paramount importance to buildings and structures in earthquake-prone areas in the early stage of the conceptual design of earthquake-resistant buildings. In the structural system and requirements for damage reduction.
This article will highlight the basic principles of design earthquake-resistant buildings and installations.
Basic principles for designing earthquake-resistant buildings and structures include:
- Structural simplicity
- Monotheism, repetition and symmetry
- Bidirectional resistance and hardness
- Torsion resistance and hardness
- Sufficient membrane and barriers on each floor
- The right foundations
Structural simplicity in earthquake-resistant buildings:
Structural simplicity is related to providing a clear, simple and straightforward loading pathway to transfer earthquake forces from a different part of the structure to its foundation.
Not only is the loading path clear and simple, but its components must also have sufficient stiffness, ductility and strength. This requirement should be checked by a structural designer who usually designs the loading path.
One of the important advantages of the direct pregnancy pathway is that it will contribute to reducing uncertainties and uncertainties in assessing strength, ductility and dynamic behavior.
On the other hand, a complex pregnancy pathway is likely to cause stress stress and a greater appreciation of strength, ductility and the dynamic response of the urban structure. It should be borne in mind that acceptable structures with a complex loading pathway can be designed.
Structural consolidation, iteration and symmetry
It has been shown that if the strength, stiffness and mass of the structure are uniformly and uniformly distributed in height and plan, it will exhibit much better seismic performance compared to the structure without these properties.
As far as the uniformity of strength and rigidity is concerned, it prevents the creation of a soft layer in the building. It should be borne in mind that non-uniformity does not mean bad seismic performance, for example, if this structure is seismically isolated, satisfactory seismic performance will appear.
With regard to building standardization in the plan, it will put an end to the torsional response and thus enhance the dynamic performance of the building. For buildings with irregular shape such as T shape, it is recommended to insert joints to create regular shapes
However, some design issues may arise in the joints due to seismic movements and need to be addressed. Details of finishes, trim, cross-joint service, and joint effects are examples of design issues likely to arise due to co-provisioning.
The structure is said to be redundant if there is more than one loading path in the building to carry the imposed seismic loads. Therefore, if the strength or stiffness of a particular loading path deteriorates, then the load is transferred over another loading path. Therefore, repetition will make the building more confident.
Bidirectional resistance and stiffness of structures during earthquakes
Vibrating loads are usually the same on both horizontal axes of the structures, and for this it is recommended to provide similar resistance systems in both directions. Therefore, structural members need a orthogonal formation that guarantees a similar resistance property in both main directions.
Resistance to torsion and stiffness of structures
Torsional lateral deformation, which may stress various structural elements in a non-uniform manner, may occur during earthquakes. The factor that leads to lateral torsional movement is strangeness at the center of mass and hardness. Therefore, this problem needs to be addressed at the design stage.
Strangeness may be reduced at the design stage, but it may not be completely eliminated due to a number of factors beyond the control of the designer. For example, the irregular mass distribution and the uneven deterioration of structural elements during earthquakes.
Finally, this problem can be addressed by arranging solid and resistant members near the circumference of the structure.
Sufficient membrane and barriers on each floor
The effect of membrane and barriers on the seismic response of the structure is critical. Not only does it transfer the seismic inertia load to the vertical building members but also prevents the large lateral movement of these vertical elements.
Therefore, in order for the floors to function properly, sufficient rigidity must be provided in the plan. In addition, attention to the joint between the floors and vertical structural members.
These measures are especially important if there is a large opening membrane or in the case of long shapes of the plan.
Finally, if the floor is made of precast concrete, it is necessary to provide sufficient bearing to avoid losing bearings during earthquakes.
Suitable foundations for earthquake-resistant structures
The design and construction of the foundation and its connection to the superstructure are required, in order for the entire structure to undergo uniform excitation during earthquakes.
That is why it is advised to provide the appropriate link between the individual foundations or the foundations in the form of packages. In addition, when the superstructure consists of separate walls with different hardness, it is advisable to use a strong cellular foundation.
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