Foundation wall construction – materials and dimensions

Foundation wall construction is the support for the entire building. The foundation walls should be carefully planned and constructed as they are perhaps the most important part of the structure. When the foundation walls are not built properly, cracks may appear in the structure. Cracks may occur due to the foundation being filled before the concrete achieves the required strength or because the required amount of steel has not been placed accordingly.

Walls are foundations and tapes used to support structural or non-structural walls for conveying and distributing loads on the soil in a manner that does not exceed the carrying capacity of the soil. In addition to avoiding excessive leveling and rotation and maintaining adequate safety against slipping and rolling over.

The foundation wall and the walls of the facility should be designed to withstand erosion, fast-moving water, and other factors that affect these types of walls. The first two reasons restrict or limit the use of wall foundations in coastal areas.

Foundation wall construction of the bar rules:

Also called continuous foundations and used when building buildings with walls or load-bearing walls where they are created by digging a trench in each of the walls of the building in order to move the building loads to the soil through the walls and it is necessary to continue the foundation under the bottom of the walls or the walls in full to achieve the spread of loads On the largest possible area of land.

The wall’s feet extend along the wall’s direction. The size of the foundation and the thickness of the foundation wall are determined based on the type of soil at the site. Foundation wall width is generally 2-3 times the wall width.

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Wall floor can be built of stone, brick, ordinary concrete or reinforced concrete.

An economical wall floor can be constructed provided the required load to be transported is small in size and the underlying soil layer is sandy.

Therefore, a suitable wall is best suited for small buildings.

Foundation wall construction from almost any material, but concrete, masonry and wood are predominant.

If wood is chosen, you will need to ensure that it has been processed or certified for marine use, and even bits and holes must be treated as field.

The walls of the foundations of blacksmithing should be fully stuffed and reinforced, while the walls of the concrete foundations must be reinforced, and the concrete mixture should be of high strength and low water-cement ratio.

Building a foundation wall

  1. Foundation Wall Bricks:
  • In the case of brick walls, the base consists of several brick tracks, and the lower path is usually twice the width of the wall above. The increased base width of the foundations of the wall is obtained by providing a 5 cm offset on both sides of the wall.
  • The depth of each cycle can be one brick or a multiple of the brick thickness used.
  • The base of the foundation wall is located on a regular concrete floor that extends from 10 to 15 cm after the removal of the last brick
  • The width at the base should be no less than the width of the supported wall plus 30 cm.

 

  1. Stone Wall Foundations: Stone Masonry
  • In the case of stone walls, the displacement size can be 15 cm with a height of the course 30 cm. Therefore, the displacement volume is slightly more than the size of the travertine wall.
  • The depth of concrete should not be less than 15 cm.
  • In general, the proportions of the fat-free mixture are 1: 4: 8 (1 cement: 4 flour total: 8 coarse total) or 1: 5: 10 (1 cement: 5 flour total: 10 coarse mixture)
  • The angular spread of the load from the wall should not be more than 1 vertical to 112 horizontal in masonry and 1 vertical to 1 horizontal for cement.
  1. Wall foundation with reinforced concrete:
  • If the load on the wall is heavy or the soil has a low bearing capacity, a reinforced concrete bar floor can be provided.
  • The thickness of the strip can be reduced towards the edge to cause economy.

 

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It is worth mentioning here the foundations and their types in building, as they are divided into shallow foundations and deep foundations

Surface foundations

Surface foundations: are foundations in which the layable terrain layer is close to the surface of the Earth and bears the building loads to be constructed on.

Surface foundation types:

  1. Strip foundations (continuous): are foundations that extend down the entire walls of the building
  2. Separate rules: are rules that are made under each column of the minivan
  3. Common rules: are rules that are made under every two or more columns of a building
  4. Foundations for the basha (mat): It is a type of foundation that is placed on the entire surface of the floor below the building, and that serves as a single base on which the building rests, and among its types:
  • A patch of regular concrete with large thicknesses on which separate armed bases are placed.
  • A large thickness of reinforced concrete spray, on which the columns rest directly.
  • Inverted slab. From armed tiles and beams
  • To flatten it with a flat slab, on which the columns rest directly without inverting beams.
  1. Foundations for prefabricated columns: are bases (either ready or poured on site) and are equipped with a specific shape for prefixed columns to be installed.

Second: the deep foundations

In the event of a structure with high loads and the surface layers of the soil not being able to carry it, it is necessary to resort to deep foundations.

Where the loads of origin are transferred to a deep layer of soil with greater capacity to carry the loads.

Types of deep foundations:

  1. Alexandrian Wells.
  2. Piles.
  3. Caissons.

Read also: The role of calcium chloride in concrete

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