Interior design elements and basic principles for buildings

Interior design is the art of designing the interior of the building in an innovative and technical way. The designed space must be visually attractive and allow customers to do their work. The customer or user should not feel uncomfortable with the position of an object in the place or according to the object’s color, size, and shape. So what are the elements of interior design?

Interior design elements

  • the color
  • The light
  • The shape
  • The space
  • Line
  • Texture

The color:

Color is an important component of interior design. It plays a vital role as the customer decides the entire design once he notices the color. Colors should be used in a way that represents their function and should facilitate good comfort.

Here are some color suggestions for the different rooms:

Natural colors:

Yellow, green, blue, organic brown, etc. come under natural colors. Give a sensitive or bold tone to the interior. Natural colors remind the feeling outside. Therefore, these are best suited for bedrooms, bathrooms etc. where individuals are more likely to relax or refresh.

Comfort colors:

The color in this category comes from orange gourd, brown cocoa, biscuit, wheat, etc. Comfortable colors make the room warm and the user will feel comfortable. These colors are suggested for kitchens, halls, etc.

Contrasting colors:

Dark red, active black, whites, etc. come under contrast colors. It provides a sophisticated backdrop to the room, so it is a good choice for dining halls, living area, etc.

Interior design elements for buildings

The light:

Lighting is an important factor not only as a component of interior design but also an important consideration for building construction. A convenient light is essential for users to perform their activities with comfort.

The building should use maximum natural light or daylight during the day to perform routine activities. Doors, windows and ventilators are used to allow natural light to penetrate inside.

Daylight factor = (natural light inside the building) / (natural light outside)

The recommended daylight factor for different rooms is as follows:

Room or spaceLight factor
the kitchen2.5 %
study room1.9%
Living room0.625%


Now comes artificial lighting in which an artificial light source is arranged inside the rooms. There are three ways to illuminate a space:

General lighting: General lighting or ambient lighting is the normal lighting required in rooms. It covers all corners of the room and provides comfort to the users.

Local lighting: Local lighting is also called the lighting task in which the light source is provided only for the area in which certain activities or tasks are performed. Light sources are installed near the mission areas.

Lighting accent: Lighting is similar to the local lighting accent, but it is used for special purposes. Distinctive lighting is more aesthetic for monitors, therefore, it is used to highlight things, in decoration rooms, etc.

عناصر التصميم الداخلي للمباني والمبادئ الأساسية له

The shape:

A shape is an area of ​​dimensions that is determined by an object outline. If two or more shapes are combined, it will be called a model. Shapes are three types.

Natural shapes: Natural shapes are nothing but naturally occurring shapes such as flowers, mountains, clouds, etc. These shapes create a natural feeling in space.

Geometric shapes: Geometric shapes such as square, rectangle, triangle, etc. have an appropriate area and size. It can be provided easily.

Topical shapes: Topical shapes are made industrially with random colors, edges, lines, etc.


Vacuum is an important component of interior design. A space is only the space available to allow for various purposes. Space can be divided into two types.

  • Two-dimensional space
  • Three-dimensional space

In two-dimensional space, length and width are taken into account, while length, width and height are taken into account in three-dimensional space. This space is used for different purposes like furniture placement, decoration materials, etc.

A space filled with positive space is called a negative space. A good designer must provide a balance between positive and negative spaces.


Line is the marker that defines shapes and creates models. Generally, fonts are of three types as follows

  • Horizontal lines
  • Vertical lines
  • Dynamic lines

Horizontal lines can be seen on beds, tables, etc., and it gives a secure feeling of space. Vertical lines can be seen on windows, doors, etc. giving the user comfort. Dynamic lines or curved lines can be observed on the stairs, which will add an aesthetic feel to space.


Texture is nothing but a feeling created by looking or touching an object. In interior design, the texture is divided into:

  • Optical texture
  • The actual texture

The touch that can feel with our eyes is the visual touch, and the actual touch can be felt by both touch and touch. The interior designer must design the texture in a way that the user should not feel monotonous.

One of the principles of interior design is that it adopts the principle of rhythm design in arranging the elements of interior design in the available space. The arrangement should create a rhythm while you’re looking at it.

There are three types of ways to achieve rhythm:

  • Repetition: In this method, elements of the same size, color, and shape are frequently used for design.
  • Modifications or change: Meaning, two or more elements are arranged in an alternative way to achieve the rhythm
  • Progression: The elements are arranged in such a way that the size or color gamut of the elements increases or decreases gradually

In the interior design, the designed space must overwhelm the unit throughout its operation period which enables the user to influence without any confusion. The unit must be preserved in such a way that the observer’s eye moves smoothly from one object or shape to another. At the same time, the observer should not feel monotonous. Therefore, diversity should appear in the form of materials, colors, shapes, sizes etc.

Read also: The use of wood in building design

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