Types of building foundations and the importance of soil determination in determining the type of foundations
Building foundations: It is the lower part of the construction that ensures the stability of the building with strength, durability and continuity in the ground. The types of building foundations are divided into two types according to depth where there is
- Superficial foundations, which are less than 10 meters deep underground
- Deep foundations that are more than 10 meters underground.
1 – The surface foundation is the one that does not need to go deep in order to obtain the appropriate soil to establish the building, so that the solid soil to establish the building and carry it close to the surface of the earth, and the surface basis is divided into 5 types of foundations, they are:
- Strip foundation, which extends completely below the building.
- The basis of the separate rules which are established under each of the building columns that are constructed.
- He established common rules, which are the rules that are shared by two or more columns of the building being constructed.
- The foundation of a mat, which is the foundation that is placed under construction on the surface of the earth completely and evenly, as it is considered the basic foundation upon which the building is based.
The basis of the mat is divided into four types:
- A thick mat that is used to lay separate bases on it which is an ordinary concrete.
- A large thickness mat that is used to support the columns directly and is reinforced concrete.
- A mat consisting of armed beams and tiles, in the form of an inverted roof.
- A mat consisting of reinforced tiles only and used to support the columns directly.
Bases of prefabricated columns which are bases fitted or installed at the site in a specific way in order for the columns to be installed well.
2- The deep foundation is the basis in which depths in the soil are used to define and know the soil suitable for construction, as it is used in the case of high construction. This type of foundation is divided into three types:
The foundation of Iskandarani wells is a deep well which is drilled to reach the soil suitable for construction and to which pour ordinary concrete bases of great thickness, after which armed layers of concrete are placed over the ordinary.
Basically they are piles, which are columns that are fixed to the ground below the reinforced bases of the building, as they are used to transport building loads to a large depth of the soil suitable for construction, and piles are divided into three types according to the material
- Piles made of concrete.
- Piles made of metal.
- Piles made of wood.
The foundations of caissons are large and massive foundations of various dimensions and are made of steel and ready for use or are poured on site It is divided into three types:
- Caissons are boxes.
- Air compressors.
- Endless Caissons.
Types of building foundations used in construction:
1- Ordinary foundations, which consist of ordinary concrete and it is possible to put a layer of reinforced concrete on it, and it consists of one or two parts.
2- Armed foundations are the foundations that rely on reinforcement in general. Under the reinforcement layer there is an ordinary concrete layer, in order to facilitate movement and work to isolate iron from the soil.
3- Steel foundations that depend on the beams of each bearing load and are coated with a layer of regular concrete to protect it from corrosion, rust or disintegration.
4- The foundations of machines are those that are done by using machines, and the strength of vibrations that can be exposed to them are taken into consideration, which are concrete blocks placed directly on the soil.
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The basics that control the type of building foundation used:
- The type of soil that is used in construction where there is soil that needs high foundations and another type that requires few foundations.
- The height of the building to be constructed, as the higher the height of the building, the more essentials used.
- Know the construction uses later, because the building load varies from building to building.
The basics that determine the soil stress and durability of the foundation:
- The strength of soil granularity.
- The angle and value of the internal friction of the soil.
- Depth of soil level.
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